Thin plies may be hybridized with conventional plies, interlaced for strength, and used with adhesives as … NOT optional... h = np. Composite Material. Material Selection And Properties - CompositesWorld Layout begins from top of the laminate as illustrated in the following figure. The layup orientation defines the base or reference orientation of all the plies in the layup. 7 illustrates a 6-ply EIL that has a stacking sequence of (-60°, 60°, 0°, 0°, 60°, -60°). The system consists of several different domain-specific programs and commercial software packages integrated via a generic interfacing mechanism. The laminate specimen was previously subjected to … When the plies are stacked at various angles, the lay-up is called a laminate. Roles of the Matrix-Bind fibres together-protect fibres This file containts functions to calculate what the deformation or load on a laminate is. the top, middle and bottom of each ply in the laminate. """ The failure mode is generally a combination of localized crushing, microbuckling and shearout. 2.4 Fiber reinforced Polymer (FRP) Laminated composites (1hour) Lamina & Laminate Lay-up, Ply-orientation definition Module 3: Behaviour of a Laminae-I : 4 hours Linear Elastic Stress-Strain Characteristics of FRP Composites 3.l Stress and Strain concepts in 3-D (1 hour) Angle-Ply Laminates ¾If an angle-ply laminate has an even number of plies, then A16 = A26 = 0. In solid composite layups the orientation is not projected. Symmetrical Layup 100 4.2.4 Plates with Built-In Edges – Orthotropic and ... notation standard in elasticity, structural analy-sis, and composite materials. [0/90/ +453/90/0] B. These laminates can be actuated from one state to the other. Smart Structures, K. Fatigue, L. Comparison To Metals, M. Residual Stresses N. Case Study . Failure probability is very sensitive E 2 & 2 uncertainties 2. 1)particulate 2)Whiskers 3)Continuous fibre. Parameters • E1 (float) – Young’s modulus in 1 direction. Perhaps most notable though is the use of composite materials; whereas the ECO-Ship 2020 included composite hatch covers, the new design extends their use to the tween decks. You can extrude normal to a 2D mesh or by filling the volume between 2D dependent meshes. (0,90) means one fabric ply, with warp in 0 direction, fill in 90 direction
Note: In some of the books on composites and research articles the coordinate systems used have z direction positive in upward direction. Laminate Analysis Program. 45]2S is typical of the range of engineering composite materials (i.e. Although the final stacking sequence will be determined through analysis, the following general rules provide a starting point. This text deals with composites manufacturing methods, providing tips for getting the best results that weigh the required material properties against cost and production efficiency. All the plies properties and loadings goes into this input file. sum (thickness) / 2 # Create a list for the strains in each ply. 6.1 Spray Lay -up 47 6.2 Wet Lay-up/Hand Lay-up 48 6.3 Vacuum Bagging49 6.4 Filament Winding50 6.5 Pultrusion 51 6.6 Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM) 52 6.7 Other Infusion Processes - SCRIMP, RIFT, VARTM etc. Thanks Compositepro. I interpret your reply as being that, with woven material, the sequence 0/45/90 is never used. Have I got it right?
Elastic Tailoring of a Composite D-Spar Progress Report for Calendar Year 1.998 ... (the notation is defined by Tsai [6]). The fundamental premise of designing structures with laminated composite materials is that the materials can be tailored to meet requirements by choosing the materials, thicknesses or thickness fractions, and orientation angles of constituent materials. A laminate with coordinate system and ply numbering is shown in Figure 5.1(a). layup chosen was a [20/50/-40/20] s layup. Independent material properties and observed trends 3. Of course, there are always exceptions to each of the rules. Here, NS stands for the number of symmetrical layers. Certain composite laminates exhibit bistability by having two stable curvatures of opposite sign with the two axes of curvature perpendicular to each other. • Remind students not to touch face, skin, etc while handling resins. A11(z) = As11(z) + Aa11(z) Then, Eq. Ply directions and number of layers are indicated using the laminate orientation code as follows: [ 1 m 1 / 2 m 2/…] ns (or [ 1:m 1 / 2:m 2/…]:ns in computer format), where 1 – ply orientations (degrees) of the laminate staking sequence m 1 strain = [] # Iterate over all plies. The broad majority of ply or lamina materials obey Hooke's law and hence all of their stresses and strains may be related by a system of linear … This text deals with composites manufacturing methods, providing tips for getting the best results that weigh the required material properties against cost and production efficiency. The actuation from the original Each ply has a thickness of 0.2 mm. If you are working with a woven fabric, you cannot get a 45 between a 0 and 90. One ply of fabric will be a 0/90 or a +/-45. When working with unid... An Instructor's Guide is also available. Table 1. An advanced composite material is made of a fibrous material embedded in a resin matrix, generally laminated with fibers oriented in alternating directions to give the material strength and stiffness. For each ply you specify the ply's name, material, thickness, and orientation, as well as the number of integration points and the region of the model to which the ply is assigned. You enter the shorthand notation in the Shorthand String box in the Shorthand Format dialog box. Mechanics of composite laminates have been researched for decades [], mainly due to their advantages in high specific strength, better fatigue/impact resistance and weight reduction, etc.The dynamic aspects of composite laminated plates have been remaining the hot topics for the airworthiness of aircraft structures, such as the composite laminated wing/skin systems and … To perform this calculation the ABD matrix and its inverse are required in combination with either: Load vector ( N x, N y, N x y, M x, M y, M x y) T. Deformation vector ( ε x, ε y, ε x y, κ x, κ y, κ x y) T. A bilinear traction-separation law was introduced to describe interlaminar behavior during the propagation of delamination and full integration element was employed around pinhole to capture the stress gr- a-dient more accurately. Structural composites are combinations of composites and homogeneous materials. Process for optimizing with ELs Effective laminates (EL) are suitable for rapid optimization since they can be sized by changing their thickness without consideration for their actual layup stacking order. The composite material properties in the usual notation are GPa, GPa, GPa, and density Kg/m 3.Taking the fiber orientation of each ply as a design variable, the total number of independent design variables is 128 in the optimization of the outer wing structure. The layup contains a biaxial non-crimp fabric (NCF) with orientations +45° and -45°. “Hybrid laminates, ... composite ply were stacked in a 2:1 layup using the stacking sequence that is shown in ... where n is the number of Al sheets in the laminate. Describes advances, key information, case studies, and examples that can broaden your knowledge of composites materials and manufacturing methods. The Classical Laminate Theory (CLT) was originally used for the first investigation of composite laminates. define layup sequence, starting at bottom... (use negative material set number to stop) enter material set number for ply number 1: 1 enter ply angle: 0 enter material set number for ply number 2: 1 enter ply angle: 90 enter material set number for ply number 3: -1 laminate stiffness matrix: The fundamental premise of designing structures with laminated composite materials is that the materials can be tailored to meet requirements by choosing the materials, thicknesses or thickness fractions, and orientation angles of constituent materials. Symmetrical Layup 100 4.2.4 Plates with Built-In Edges – Orthotropic and ... notation standard in elasticity, structural analy-sis, and composite materials. Lamination parameters (LP), first introduced by Tsai and Hahn [8], provide a compact notation for the description of the stiffness of any laminate lay-up configuration. Composite systems include many more factors than conventional metallic structures. (3.53), D11 reaches its maximum value if J ( 1) 11 = 0. Classical laminate analysis. 0 ° represents the fiber direction. 3 types of reinforcement. WORDS.TXT - Free ebook download as Text File (.txt), PDF File (.pdf) or read book online for free. Based Optimization of Composite Laminates for Cryogenic Environments,” AIAA Journal, 41(10) 2029-2036.) The 3D slender composite D‐box shell structure is … An Instructor's Guide is also available. 53 6.8 Autoclave 54 6.9 Oven 55 6.10 Resin Film Infusion (RFI) 56 Composites. You create a composite layup in the Property module. Three variables: ply material, laminate thickness, and laminate angle % in the 0/45/90 directions. C.V. Singh, in Modeling Damage, Fatigue and Failure of Composite Materials, 2016 8.3 Damage evolution in multidirectional laminates. This laminate will be referred to as the 'Type B' laminate. Fellow composite-using engineers: thread327-334726: Layup sequence notation covered similar ground to my present query. The basic idea is to build a database that stores appropriate properties of all permutations of lay-up angles for a laminate. The plies of a quasi-isotropic layup are stacked in a 0°, –45°, 45°, and 90° sequence or in a 0°, –60°, and 60° sequence. An integrated knowledge based system is proposed to automate the design of laminated composite plates in an object-oriented programming environment. 4! Bistability is exhibited by a composite laminate when it in two stable rests equilibrium states. The parts B are called the skins or facing sheets, while part C is called the core (in this case a honeycomb core). The notation for layup stacking sequence definition follows ASTM standard D6507-11 (except material codes). This notation is in Voigt notation with engineering strain 12 = 2 12. The laminate layup is (0° / 90° / 0° / 90°) S, where the 0° plies align with the Y axis. Several optimisation methods have been introduced to solve this challenging problem, which is often nonlinear, nonconvex, multimodal, and multidimensional. Composites have some properties that may be non-intuitive to engineers accustomed to working only with metals. These composites, as the name suggests, have two stable shapes and a snap through / snap back phenomenon between these two shapes, which makes them suitable materials for use in “Adaptive Structures”. N x = 120 N/mm, N y = 0, N xy = 0, M x = 10 N mm/mm, M y = 10 N mm/mm, M xy = 0 The effects of hygrothermal effects are included. They also cover some issues that most analyses will miss. (input.dat) needs to be modified according to the laminate to be analysed. z_top = np. This guide provides step-by-step instructions on how to prepare input files (specify blade external geometry and internal structural layup of composite laminates), how to execute the code, and how to interpret the output properties. Composites generally come in one of two forms: – Cloth or Fabric: a woven material with fibers usually running in both 0° and 90° orientations – Unidirectional fiber (a.k.a. A composite laminate with the layup of [±45/0/90] S is given. When the plies are stacked at various angles, the lay-up is called a laminate. All specimens were fab-ricated by the hand lay-up process and then cured in an autoclave under an applied pressure of 0.5MPa and a temperature of 130 C for both the standard and thin-ply composites. 6 Download as PDF A quasi-isotropic laminate results when individual lamina are oriented in such a manner as to 12.3.6.1 Layup [0/45/90/ ? The discussion of the remainder of this chapter will be organized according to this classification scheme. In conventional and continuum shell layups, Abaqus projects the specified orientation onto the surface of the shell, aligning the direction of the layup orientation that you choose with the shell normal. Vacuum bag molding is a process in which the layup is cured under pressure generated by drawing a vacuum in the space between the layup and a flexible sheet placed over it and sealed at the edges. The present article addresses the structural optimization of a composite laminate by adding a new design variable to the ber orientation and lay-up sequence: the in-plane shape and topology of each ply. Because each ply is of uniform thickness Δt and the layup is symmetric, we can compute the A ij using the formula in the technical paper "Fully Isotropic Laminates and Quasi-Homogeneous Anisotropic Laminates" that was published to the Journal of Composite Materials in October … Notation, Stacking Sequence, and MVF of the Fabricated FML Specimens Symbol Stacking Sequence Mechanical analysis proceeds on the as-sumption that the material is homogeneous. In the vacuum bag molding process, the plies are generally placed in the mold by hand layup using prepreg or wet layup. ... 30% and 40% fibre content by weight were produced using the hand lay-up … Continuous-fiber compos-ites are normally laminated materials (Fig. The ability to tailor laminate layup to obtain desired stiffness and strength properties without changing the constituent materials and the manufacturing process is a key advantage of using composites over metallic materials. Fellow composite-using engineers: thread327-334726: Layup sequence notation covered similar ground to my present query. In that case the stacking of layers in a laminate starts from the bottom. properties of composite materials, say zeroth order properties like Moduli, Strength and CTE Laminated Plate Theory is the basis for understanding higher order mechanical properties, and response of stresses on the materials MOST of our laminates are designed ‘Symmetric and Balanced’ and further are designed to be ‘Quasi-Isotropic’ Classical Laminate Theory Calculator, Release 0.0.9 homogenization.trans_isotropic3D(E1, E2, nu12, nu23, G12) Determine stiffness & compliance matrix of 3D transverse isotropic material. Each of the panels is made of 8-layer carbon/epoxy laminate of symmetric layup. 3. The composite layup editor provides a table that you use to define the plies in the layup. The complete set of stiffness matrices for any laminate can be described as linear function of terms of only 12 lamination parameters [1,2,3,4] º, [1,2,3,4] » and [1,2,3,4] Describes advances, key information, case studies, and examples that can broaden your knowledge of composites materials and manufacturing methods. Laminate Design Rules. STUDY. I have a document containing lay-up notation [[(0,90)/(±45)]3]s. The prediction of the engineering constants for a laminate are derived. This 5-session, live online course will cover a range of topics, all aimed at structural designers and engineers. [116] studied the effects of laminate thickness and stacking sequence on energy absorption capability under low velocity impact using woven carbon-epoxy composite laminates. Attendees must have previously completed the course DMSC58, Composite Repair - Stage 1. I've come across this notation to describe a composite ply layup: [2/4/4/2] – [45/0/-45/45/90/-45]s I know that the second part is notation for: [45/0/-45/45/90/-45/-45/90/45/-45/0/45] But what is the [2/4/4/2] in referrence to? The program produces an output file containing all the anaylsis results. Simcenter 3D Laminate Composites 3D layup inflation Simcenter 3D Laminate Composites’ 3D Inflation tool automatically creates detailed, solid laminate models that were previously too tedious to attempt. [0 ° /90 °2 / 45 °] s should be input as "0/90/90/45/-45" and select "S" for symmetric. ¾Each complete laminate is enclosed in a set of brackets ¾Symmetric laminates with an even number of plies are represented by listing all plies on one side of the mid-plane enclosed in brackets, followed by the subscript "s". We tried to avoid duplication, although there is some It is possible to observe that these three laminates have values of 0.0136, 0.0102, and 0:0125 in:=in:, respectively.Carpet plots are generated by testing thousands of … This stacking sequence results in relatively high shear stresses but Strain Measurements relatively low transverse stresses in all plies. A. An optimised composite laminate requires finding the minimum number of layers, and the best fibre orientation and thickness for each layer. Structural properties, such as stiffness, dimensional stability, and strength of a composite laminate, depend on the stacking sequence of the plies. The stacking sequence describes the distribution of ply orientations through the laminate thickness. As the number of plies with chosen orientations increases, more stacking sequences are possible. See Figure e. Symmetric laminates with an odd number of plies are coded as a symmetric lami- This file containts functions to calculate what the deformation or load on a laminate is. Simcenter 3D Laminate Composites enables you to attach your laminates directly to 2D or 3D mesh collectors. COMPOSITE PLY ORIENTATION—SYMMETRY AND BALANCE 801 Symmetric laminates with an even number of plies are listed in sequence, starting at one face and stopping at the midpoint. Wave modes with a skew angle larger than 30 degrees can exist in a quasi-isotropic composite plate, which is validated by both FEM ... layer quasi-isotropic composite laminate. : Uni or Tape) fibers all run in the same direction. [0/ +45/90/ 7 45/90/ +45/0] c. [0/ 7 45/90/ +45/90/ 7 45/0] D. [0/45/90/45/90/45/0] Previous question Next question. Figure 6 Laminate layup definition via layers stacking sequence notation. Composite materials include cheap and freely available glass fiber reinforced systems, exotic and tailored carbon, boron or Kevlar systems, and many other fiber and matrix systems The challenge for the designer and analyst is to make decisions on the type of idealization and level of detail required in the Finite Element Analysis. FIG. Designing composite structures: Lay-up selection. To perform this calculation the ABD matrix and its inverse are required in combination with either: Load vector ( N x, N y, N x y, M x, M y, M x y) T. Deformation vector ( ε x, ε y, ε x y, κ x, κ y, κ x y) T. Continuous-fiber compos-ites … Use the Import Layup Using Shorthand Format option to quickly define a layup using the lamination shorthand format. Figure 6 Laminate layup definition via layers stacking sequence notation. 1.8) on composite laminate strength BN Fedulov1, FK Antonov1, AA Safonov1, AE Ushakov1 and ... tion of a laminate layup for each ply involves a full set of material description of constants M, ply thickness t ... notation ‘c/T/45’ denotes the [0/90]s specimen subjected to tension in 45 direction. A special type of composite laminate is the sandwich composite, where some of the middle layers of the laminate are replaced by a very lightweight core material, typically being foam, balsa wood or metallic honeycombs.The typical sandwich structure is shown below. All angles are in degrees. When bistable composite laminates are designed for adaptive applications, ... we use a binary notation to represent the states following and extending the practice introduced byCui(2015). Composite Finite Element Analysis. A prototype system dealing with the preliminary design of a … Figure 4. 1. A material system composed of two or more unique materials that are distinguishable at a length scale > i micrometer. Composite laminates may be regarded as a type of plate or thin-shell structure, and as such their stiffness properties may be found by integration of in-plane stress in the direction normal to the laminates surface. (+/-45) means one fabric ply, warp in +45, fill in -45
Fiber composite materials using thin plies with a thickness of less than 0.08 mm provide improved delamination resistance and thinner minimum gauge for laminates. You can taper core or filler plies. Microscopically, composite materials are certainly heteroge-neous. For an N-block material, ... “ On Feasible Regions of Lamination Parameters for Lay-Up Optimization of Laminated Composites,” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A: Mathematical, Physical and … 2021-05 - Quartus Webinar: An Engineering Tangent - Fatigue Analysis of Electronic Equipment. Fellow composite-using engineers: thread327-334726: Layup sequence notation covered similar ground to my present query. Consider the temperature change from 25 0 C to 35 0 C and with no moisture effect. Bistable composites are unsymmetric laminated FRPs that exhibit bistability because of the unsymmetric laminate stacking sequence about 2021-03 - Quartus Webinar: An Engineering Tangent - Nonlinear Buckling and Imperfections. Significant uncertainty in estimates of small p f • Outline 1. Fibrous materials are not new; wood is the most … COMPOSITE LAY-UP NOTATION StressMan2506 (Structural) (OP) 6 Feb 14 06:27. Bolted joint in s lay-up composite laminate was a [0/90] You can specify a thickness and a material for all the plies. The panel has a quasi-isotropic layup [45/0/-45/90] 2s and is made of single fiber direction prepreg layers. composite laminates in detail. J ( 0) 11 = h / 2 ∫ − h / 2As11dz, J ( 1) 11 = h / 2 ∫ − h / 2Aa11zdz, J ( 2) 11 = h / 2 ∫ − h / 2As11z2dz. The composite layup editor provides a table that you use to define the plies in the layup. laminates, we obtained a 16-ply thick IM7/5260 composite laminate panel, shown in Figure 1. As an approximation, the condition is enforced by setting u y = 0 for every node in the model. (3.54) yields. It’s made of carbon-epoxy T300/N5208 and it’s subjected to following loads. Composites, by definition, are heterogeneous materials. A.1 Formulation for laminated composite plate: Fig.4 shows a typical composite laminate with thin ply with thickness 0.2mm. The constitutive equations in all of their forms are developed and then summarized in a separate section. 2021-04 - Quartus Webinar: An Engineering Tangent - The Development and Utility of Negative Thermal Expansion Alloys for Athermalization. Notation for a hybrid material layup using offset material blocks. Quaresimin et al. In this section we outline how such laminates are designed and analyzed. NS laminate and a thin-ply [0/90/0] NS laminate were prepared in this study. composite lay up or applying resin is occurring as the dust is considered a contaminate to the layup. Composite Repair – Stage 2. the orientation of each ply is arbitrary and the layup sequence is tailored to achieve the properties desired of the laminate. Optimisation. Particle-Reinforced Composites As noted in Figure 16.2,large-particle and dispersion-strengthened composites If the laminate has a lay-up of [@]AS (single orientation), the a is firher for i in range (len (thickness)): # Calculate the z coordinates of the top and bottom of the ply. The bearing strength of composites is usually lower than that of metals, and is a function of laminate layup design and torque. ! We tried to avoid duplication, although there is some Minimum weight, dimensional stability, natural frequency, and thermal conductivity are typical goals. How woul... The strains and corresponding deflections of the structure can then be expressed as a function of the applied loads, cross section geometry, laminate properties, and composite lay‐up of the D‐box. Transcribed image text: For the composite laminate layup in the image, the corresponding notation is 0° +45° -45° 90° -45 +45° 90° +45° -45° 0° Composite Layup A. [0 ° /60 ° / 30 ° /-60 ° /0 °] should be input as "0/60/-30/30/-60/0" and select "T" for total. You create a composite layup in the Property module. The composite layup editor provides a table that you use to define the plies in the layup. For each ply you specify the ply's name, material, thickness, and orientation, as well as the number of integration points and the region of the model to which the ply is assigned. 3.3 Laminate notation Considering a laminate manufactured using unidirectional (UD) plies, the lay up notation is described as shown below : Figure 11 – Stacking sequence example When designing a laminate it is important to consider the stacking sequence of plies and to be aware of SYMMETRY and BALANCE of the stack. ¾If the number of plies is odd, and it consists of alternating +θand –θplies, then not only is it symmetric ([B] = 0), but also A16, A26, D16, D26 Æ0 as the number of layers increases for the same laminate thickness. COMPOSITE LAY-UP NOTATION StressMan2506 (Structural) (OP) 6 Feb 14 06:27. Indeed we suppose that each ply is made up of two phases (one of them being void) and the position of the interface is the design variable. • Fibers should be aligned in the direction of prin. Minimum weight, dimensional stability, natural frequency, and thermal conductivity are typical goals. Knowledge and/or Skills Volume and weight fraction sum (thickness [: i]) -h The shorthand notation has the following conventions: TO run the program simply execute: Thanks, SWComposites. The perfect answer; no ambiguity! Layup orientation. I have a document containing lay-up notation [[(0,90)/(±45)]3]s. ... the two di erent composite shells, the states of a shell with [90=0] layup are denoted 0 and 1. Manufacturing, layup and storage of composite materials Laminate stacking notation, symmetry, balance and coupling effects Health and safety considerations of working with advanced composite materials Outcome 2 Evaluate the elastic properties of a composite lamina. I have a document containing lay-up notation [[(0,90)/(±45)]3]s. The second laminate Type B were tested. &KDSWHU\u001a 7-2 Laminated Structures Composite materials consist of a combination of materials that are mixed together to achieve specific structural properties. The individual materials do not dissolve or merge completely in the composite, but they act together as one. COMPOSITE LAY-UP NOTATION StressMan2506 (Structural) (OP) 6 Feb 14 06:27. Additionally, composite layup stacking sequence may be entered as text string in compressed format, as shown in Figure 5. Then, Aa11 = 0 and A11 = As11, which means that … # Calculating total thickness of the layup. Th e composites notation, ... /carbon hybrid laminate composites were investigated. 1.2 Laminates When there is a single ply or a lay-up in which all of the layers or plies are stacked in the same orientation, the lay-up is called a lamina. I have noticed that 2+4+4+2 = 12, and there are 12 ply orientations but I don't know if that is coincidence. general layup of composite laminates, both spanwise and chordwise, and an arbitrary number of webs. F. Lay-up Notation, G. Symmetric and Balanced Laminates, H. Cracking in Composites, I. Vibration and Damping, J. An interactive graphical modeler helps you to create and stack laminated composite plies efficiently. Leissa and Martin [ 4 ], for example, employed the Ritz method and thin plate theory to validate a 38 % increase in buckling load and a 21% rise in fundamental frequency, respectively. This apparent conflict is resolved by considering homogene-ity on microscopic and macroscopic scales. ¾Symmetric laminates with an odd number of plies are listed with a bar over the center ply to indicate it is the mid-plane To date, no published studies have investigated this material using these testing parameters on a quasi-isotropic layup. The infinite width along Y indicates a plane strain condition, where ∂ (⋅) ∂ y = 0. 2.4 Fiber reinforced Polymer (FRP) Laminated composites (1hour) Lamina & Laminate Lay-up, Ply-orientation definition Module 3: Behaviour of a Laminae-I : 4 hours Linear Elastic Stress-Strain Characteristics of FRP Composites 3.l Stress and Strain concepts in 3-D (1 hour) Explain how to remove epoxy from skin if exposed. In materials science, a composite laminate is an assembly of layers of fibrous composite materials which can be joined to provide required engineering properties, including in-plane stiffness, bending stiffness, strength, and coefficient of thermal expansion. Laminates (multiple plies) are constructed from a … The mechanics of laminated composite materials is presented in a clear manner with only essential derivations included. As can be seen from Eq. symmetric, antisymmetric, and SH notation, a new notation is used to identify the dispersion curves in a numerical order. This is aimed at anyone involved with repairs to composite materials, including repair technicians, supervisors, engineers, designers, researchers and managers. CwbxJAb, UehIGc, WiuVg, Yrfw, GEYWyWB, buZ, kyWD, yevdzVf, ErJKXq, gse, LuCVJ,

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